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Súkromná polícia, súkromné nemocnice aj súkromná veda

Predstavte si situáciu: Vedenie polície rozhodne, že pre policajtov je lepšie a budú aj lepšie pracovať, ak budú vlastníkmi policajných áut, zbraní, policajných staníc a s týmto nadobudnutým majetkom si budú môcť zakladať súkromné spoločnosti, ktoré budú môcť vytvárať zisk. Napríklad tým, že práve tieto dcérske spoločnosti budú vyberať pokuty a budú realizovať služby, o ktoré je zo strany verejnosti, teda najmä tých, ktorí si môžu zaplatiť nadštandardné služby, záujem.

V takomto prípade by policajti boli vraj zodpovednejší a o svoj majetok by sa starali motivovanejšie a zodpovednejšie ako o štátny majetok. Dokonca by pomohli zvýšiť príspevky na fungovanie polície, pretože by sa vraj už mohla jej činnosť spolufinancovať jej súkromnými aktivitami a štátny rozpočet na bezpečnosť by sa nemusel navyšovať. Dokonca by mohli ponúknuť aj širšiu škálu rôznych dočasných súkromných bezpečnostných a kriminalistických služieb, ktoré by však boli realizované štátnymi policajtmi platenými aj zo štátnych financií.

Výsledok takéhoto modelu je ľahko predpovedateľný. Keď prídete nahlásiť krádež auta, budú všetci riešiť ochranu krachujúcej firmy pred veriteľmi, ktorým neboli vyplatené ich podiely a úvery. Keď vás prepadnú na ulici, budete čakať, lebo kriminalisti budú s najnovšou technikou hľadať bankových lupičov. Keď prekročíte rýchlosť o 5 km/h, automaticky podporíte samofinancovanie polície, teda jej súkromnej časti.

Aj pri takomto, zatiaľ dosť absurdne pôsobiacom návrhu, by sa dali nájsť argumenty za a proti takémuto modelu. V každom prípade ide o návrh, ktorý by radikálne zmenil celú filozofiu verejnej bezpečnosti, charakter verejnej sféry a princípov fungovania verejnej sféry a štátu. Takýto návrh zatiaľ na Slovensku zo strany predstaviteľov polície neodznel, aspoň nie verejne. No identické mechanizmy sa už dlhšie aplikujú vo verejnom zdravotníctve, keď sa privatizujú ziskové činnosti a verejný rozpočet má pokryť len to, o čo súkromné spoločnosti nemajú záujem, lebo to neprináša zisk. Najnovšie sa tento princíp presadzuje v oblasti štátnej vednej politiky a pri snahách o transformáciu SAV.

Predstavitelia SAV, tiež platení z verejných zdrojov na účely verejného záujmu (ktorým veda zatiaľ je) využívajú svoje kapacity, financie a ľudí na to, aby pripravili zákony, ktoré by umožnili previesť majetok štátu do vlastníctva spoločností, ktoré s požehnaním štátu sami založia (majú sa volať verejné výskumné inštitúcie – v.v.i.) a vytvárajú takú legislatívu, ktorá im umožní na základe disponovania verejným majetkom a verejnými zamestnancami vytvárať zisk a zvyšovať súkromné príjmy.

Skupina reformátorov vedy sa realizuje už dlhšie a treba uznať, že je vo svojom snažení konzistentná. Už dlhodobo presadzuje zmeny v štátnej vednej politike, ktorá prerozdeľuje financie na výskum, a to tak, aby sa stále zvyšoval podiel financií určených pre podporu spolupráce so súkromnými firmami a priemyslom. Len v minulom roku boli aj v spolupráci s predstaviteľmi SAV zapracované viaceré formulácie do strategických dokumentov vlády – presadzujú komercionalizáciu vedy a výskumu. V máji tohto roku spustili ofenzívu za zmenu pravidiel dvoch najväčších grantových schém – VEGA a APVV – a to rovnakým smerom, teda na zvýšenie podielu z rozpočtov týchto agentúr určených na spoluprácu so súkromným a komerčným sektorom. Otázkou je, prečo sa verejní zamestnanci, platení na základe zákonov o verejnom záujme a z rozpočtov verejných inštitúcií, tak aktívne zasadzujú za presun časti verejných financií na podporu súkromných spoločností.

Aj existujúci vecný zámer návrhu zákona o verejných výskumných inštitúciách (v.v.i) vysvetľuje veľa. Najväčšia časť zámeru je postavená na zdôvodnení, že len ak budú pracoviská SAV vlastníkmi majetku, ktorý teraz ako štátny len spravujú, až potom sa oň budú môcť lepšie starať a robiť dobrú vedu. Sami si vraj (ako súkromníci chránení štátom), lepšie zoženú ďalšie zdroje, opäť predovšetkým verejné (kam zdroje z európskych grantov patria).

Predkladatelia návrhu sú zároveň budúci štatutári organizácií, ktoré budú vlastníkmi dnes ešte verejného majetku. No potom už budú mať väčšie možnosti s týmto majetkom disponovať, určovať, ktorý je prebytočný a teda predajný, a budú môcť rozhodovať o nakladaní so ziskom. Inými slovami, správcovia verejného majetku pripravujú zákony, ako sa stať jeho vlastníkom.  Zadarmo.

Ale načo budú vedcom majetky štátu? Pri pohľade na rozmiestnenie budov (lukratívne stavby  v Starom meste v Bratislave, areál na Patrónke v tesnom susedstve majetkov J and T, areál Archeologického ústavu SAV v Nitre, zámok v Smoleniciach, budovy v Tatrách, budovy v Košiciach a pod.) je vidieť, že ide o pomerne lukratívny majetok. Až vtedy je pochopiteľné, prečo si predkladatelia návrhu chcú ponechať päť rokov celý majetok SAV pod svojou kontrolou a až potom podľa vlastného uváženia („podľa potrieb verejných výskumných inštitúcií“) prideliť nejaké zvyšky z pôvodného koláča vytvoreným v.v.i., ktoré vzniknú zlúčením súčasných ústavov akadémie. Zámerom je, že vlastníkom celého majetku, ktorý v súčasnosti spravujú všetky (právne samostatné) ústavy SAV aj s jeho predsedníctvom, by sa stalo len súčasné predsedníctvo SAV, teda tí, ktorí pripravujú návrh zákona o v.v.i, alebo nimi zriadená a kontrolovaná organizácia.

Druhým dôležitým bodom vecného zámeru je možnosť novovytvorených verejných výskumných inštitúcií, aby si zakladali dcérske spoločnosti, ktoré by mohli pod rúškom verejnej výskumnej inštitúcie produkovať zisk, teda fungovať v podstate ako bežná komerčná firma, len bez nutnosti mať vlastný kapitál alebo majetok. Tí, čo poznajú najrozšírenejšie spôsoby tunelovania, vedia, ako ľahko sa dá pomocou dcérskych spoločností tunelovať materská firma, a tiež vedia, že celá história slovenskej ekonomickej transformácie je v podstate históriou takýchto metód.

Skúsenosti s vytváraním dcérskych spoločností, ktoré môžu riešiť komerčne zaujímavé úlohy, prebrali aj autori vecného zámeru návrhu zákona o verejných výskumných inštitúciách a dokonca vnášajú do svojho návrhu aj systém výnimiek a definícií, v akých situáciách konflikt záujmov pracovníkov a vedenia materských a zároveň aj dcérskych organizácií nebude konfliktom záujmov. Našli dokonca aj legislatívny spôsob, ako realizovať vývoj (komerčná činnosť pre firmy), ktorý spadá pod prísnu ekonomickú a právnu kontrolu tak, aby sa dal robiť, hoci pod iným názvom a inou hlavičkou bez zbytočnej kontroly.

Miešanie súkromných a verejných záujmov však nie je v aktivitách mnohých pracovníkov a členov vedenia SAV žiadnou novinkou. Skôr to vyzerá tak, že pripravovaný návrh zákona, rovnako ako aj viaceré doterajšie iniciatívy na podporu výskumu a projektov napojených na súkromné a komerčné firmy, len upravujú a posilňujú už existujúci stav. Na adresách pracovísk SAV alebo vysokých škôl už pôsobí viacero organizácií, ktoré sa venujú identickej činnosti ako pracoviská v priestoroch, ktorých sídlia a dokonca v ich prospech vystupujú aj predstavitelia SAV.

Takto napríklad podľa vlastnej web stránky vlastnícky anonymná s.r.o, sídliaca v priestoroch jedného z ústavov SAV, uvítala najvyšších predstaviteľov Európskej únie a akoby náhodou v sprievode predsedu SAV a zároveň pracovníka uvedeného pracoviska v jednej osobe. Dlhodobo sa v prospech komercionalizácie vedy angažuje pracovník inej s.r.o., ktorý je zároveň zamestnancom tejto súkromnej spoločnosti, sídliacej na adrese Univerzity Komenského, na ktorej zároveň tento vedec pôsobí, no ktorý zároveň pôsobí aj na SAV, dokonca vo funkcii vedúceho centra, menovaného práve predsedníctvom SAV. Už niekoľko rokov z prostriedkov EÚ realizovala vedu popularizujúce akcie aj v úzkej spolupráci s SAV iná súkromná organizácia, ktorá sa aktívne zasadzuje za transformáciu SAV.

Otázkou môže byť, či aj tieto súkromné organizácie, už dlhší čas priamo či nepriamo financované aj z verejných a európskych peňazí, sú medzi tými budúcimi firmami a organizáciami, s ktorými by verejné výskumné pracoviská vytvárali spoločné podniky, prípadne by sa spoločne s pracoviskami SAV uchádzali práve o tie projekty VEGA a APVV, ktoré predpokladajú spoluprácu verejných a súkromných inštitúcií. Inou otázkou je, či dokážu aj priniesť ten očakávaný kapitál do výskumu, keďže zatiaľ žijú najmä z európskych a verejných peňazí.

Čítanie vecného zámeru pripravovaného na SAV môže pre čitateľa s citom pre verejný záujem pôsobiť veľmi známo. Ako čítanie o stratégiách privatizácie verejného majetku počas celých 90. rokov. Najskôr sa vytvorí nová právna forma. Potom sa existujúce podniky (SAV) zákonne transformuje na novú formu, pričom dôjde k odštátneniu majetku v prospech nových subjektov. Tieto subjekty sa tvária ako súkromné firmy, pohybujú sa na báze komerčných vzťahov podľa obchodného zákonníka, pritom však majú krytý chrbát garantovaným prísunom štátnych dotácii na realizáciu hlavnej činnosti. V rámci realizácie hlavnej činnosti, v priestoroch a s vybavením, ktoré boli pôvodne verejné, si však dokážu založiť dcérske spoločnosti, ktoré budú môcť robiť aj komerčne najzaujímavejšie objednávky, s bohatými partnermi a disponovať veľkými grantmi z nadnárodnej úrovne.

Špinavú, drobnú a podhodnotenú prácu nechajú na pleciach materských firiem a smotana sa bude papať v dcérskych firmách, bývajúcich stále v rodičovskom dome. Nad celou touto rodinnou idylkou bude pozorným okom dohliadať krstný otec zriaďovateľ, ktorý bude mať právo zasahovať do materskej rodiny, ale aj do rodiny dcéry. Komerčne úspešné firmy sa stanú ešte úspešnejšími a dokážu odstrániť konkurenciu na trhu, lebo málokto z bežných podnikateľských subjektov si bude môcť dovoliť mať takúto štátnu podporu (budovy, vybavenie, ľudia so zaplateným poistným a stabilným základným platom).

Pekná idylka má však jeden dôležitý háčik. Znamená prerozdelenie aj tak malých zdrojov v neprospech základného výskumu vo vede, ktorý mal byť primárnym poslaním SAV. Druhým rizikom je prevedenie dispozičných práv na verejný majetok na v podstate súkromné firmy, ktoré môžu vďaka tejto podpore zvyšovať svoj rast. Zisky sa sprivatizujú a straty (a náklady) zostanú na pleciach zvyškov verejnej inštitúcie. Je toto skutočne verejný záujem?

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Komentáre (19)

  • Vilo 04.06.2014 4:03

    Vznik kastovného systému pokračuje. Výsledok je možné vidieť v Indii.

  • Blbológ 05.06.2014 8:40

    Nič nové pod “slnkom” – tento model bol na Slovensku “úspešne” realizovaný už za čias pontifikátov “otca vlasti” a jeho debokratických nástupcov!

  • Milan 07.06.2014 8:16

    Ale ako chcete donútiť mnohých vedcov – zamestnancov SAV, aby konečne začali (efektívne) pracovať? To, čo predvádza SAV je socialistická veda v kapitalistickej spoločnosti.

  • Michalík 09.06.2014 8:23

    Hodnotenie zamestnancov (t.j. technického personálu, ktorého je vzhľadom na stále viac limitované prostriedky stále menej) je v SAV samozrejme vecou jednotlivých pracovísk. Neviem však, odkiaľ pochádza informácia o tom, “čo predvádza SAV”. Ak je hodnotenie jednotlivých vedcov medzinárodným informačmým systémom SCI podľa výsledkov publikovaných v impaktovaných medzinárodných časopisoch (sledovaných strediskom vo Filadelfii) atribútom “socialistickej vedy”, nie je mi jasné, aké vedu má potom pán Milan na mysli…

  • Miroslav Tížik: O demagógii a vedeckej práci | Blog JeToTak.sk 11.06.2014 14:38

    [...] článok o rizikách transformácie (čiastočnej privatizácie) SAV ukázal na možné budúce negatívne [...]

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  • Cedrick 08.02.2017 10:16

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  • Blaine 09.02.2017 16:59

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  • Ahmad 10.02.2017 10:10

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  • Wilber 10.02.2017 22:27

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